sign up for free viagra adverts full strength viagra on line paroxetine viagra viagra dziala or viagra often how much does viagra cost in spain cialis morning xenical generic cost problems with buying viagra online is desogen safe when will propecia become generic in the united states buy viagra tampa cialis purchase buy paypal canada introduction viagra in sri lanka merdia diet pill viagra online yes or no viagra swiss expressnow.com can you send me cialis to my address in aurora co does viagra help with multiple erections cialis can i take it two days in a row is cialis working for you buy clomiphene citrate online in canada with paypal viagra in the dominica republic levitra free coupon metronidazole pills safe online us does levitra make you sleepy tadalafil chemical viagra rate in hyderabad clomid success buy cialis sublingual price metabolism booster diet pills european diet pill no exercise cincinnati cialis pulmonary names for cialis acyclovir tab how long to get rid of an outbreak vibramycin drug study buy clomid s.a xenical diet pills price does viagra makes you impotent cialisgerd can i take viagra very chance that viagra doesnt work ledi viagra cialis daily heart disease quanto custa um viagra canada viagra store can you take cialis with energy drinks average cost viagra where to buy viagra in johannesburg acyclovir for cold sores what is the dosage bactrim suspension no prescription can i buy amoxicillin over the counter in greece single azithromycin for sale with no prescription fat burners albuterol buy where to order cialis online australia purchase one viagra propecia does not work at the temlesp viagra after prostatectomy how many hours intervel clomid should take is it safe to combine viagra and arginine nolvadex online purchase in india viagra or pennis pump viagra u srbiji is viagra sold in fiji does plavix work on everyone mississauga walk in that prescribe cialis cialis 36 hour vs cialis daily what will the cost of generic plavix viagra et escorts generic viagra overnight u s delivery viagra pages edinburgh pregnant cowper viagra prices in cabo how to convince doctor to prescribe viagra what is the best dose of viagra viagra levitra celias apple cider vinger diet pills brazil diet pills what is the price of 2.5mg cialis tablets selling viagra in spain viagra 100mg target what to expect when stoppiing gabapentin can buy levofloxacin buy viagramiami how to buy viagra in pfizer australia online sildenafil for canine hypertension is it more difficult to ejaculate when using viagra viagra overdose lethal shelf time for viagra how long does cipro take to work for diarrhea bali viagra guide uk viagra patent cialis generic vs. brand name what is cyproheptadine hcl for cialis costume cure for viagra overdose can i get clomid in wisconsin without a prescription how long does it take for viagra to start cialis 2.5 gram ebay m.r.p of viagra pills in india seroquel a sleeping pill is it possible to overdose on cialis where can i find the cheapest price on cialis viagra indiano o americano viagra on asda singulair free coupon from the drug company biere au viagra what are the best antidepressants does kaiser pay for cialis cialis stuttgart viagra medications how to get cialis from your doctor viagra doses for young men south africa viagra prescription good use of viagra what is best time of day to take cialis zithromax mercury drug buy zithromax from canada what is cost of viagra in indian rupees how do you know if a guy has taken viagra howt o tell the diference between real and fake viagra how to stop a headache after taking viagra buy viagra in beijing eurodiscounter cialis propecia daily dose cialis v kamagra how to get viagra in lahore in price female viagra and alcohol buy fluconazole online uk does generic viagra make you sleepy us made generic cialis cialis does increase sperm counts viagra in india hyderabad cialis uk shipping side effects of generic lexapro rash can viagra help with erections women viagra in food canyoutakeviagrawithlisinopril what works better levitra or viagra costs of viagra in dublin nolvadex for sale and clomid in australia levitra cialis and viagra trial packs can you take amlodipine besylate with viagra. what are the generic name for lamisil pills blue cross plan covers viagra lisinopril overdose levels doxycycline hyclate buy online new zealand the prcie of viagra in ireland how long does a boner last with levitra take viagra on adderall viagra amyl nitrate what do womanuse instead of cialis metronidazole pediatric iv drug study cialis tablets cost in pakistan wellcare how many viagra pills on each refill diet pill for dogs what does cialis make you feel sildenafil citrate powder for women for orgasm zoloft low dose anxiety what do you fell after viagra can cialis have the opposite effect strattera good drug when viagra no longer works viagra for pigs how can i get viagra in korea is it bad to take viagra at a young age dapoxetine with levitra levitra kidney disease how to get viagra in china what hapends if a women drings viagra is safe to take ginseng a few hours before viagra how much is generic plavix at walmart viagra direct buy where can i get nolvadex south africa what is lamisil pills used for taking cialis and viagra at the same time do health insurance companies pay for viagra and cialis over the counter viagra ottawa does viagra or cialis work for premature pfizer viagra light switch when does a viagra erection go down is generic plavix available in the usa antibiotic not to take with cialis generic viagra the same as viagra can take viagra with statins can we get viagra in walmart best viagra men india the low price cialis generic how many levitra can you have in one day viagra to make baby out of pocket cost cialis cvs how long are viagra pills effective whtas the price viagra can you manufacture your own cialis cialis lloyds price generic viagra shipped from uk vand viagra plant viagra in india company name if i take a statin can i take viagra how much is viagra in uk clomid generic brand can you put levitra under your tongue adcirca instead cialis cialis gym cialis tablets chinese i got high on viagra viagra for fertility how long does it take for zovirax to work po cialis fom mexico cost famvir canada buy natural viagra cialis 36 hour price compare egipt viagra buy azithromycin 2 pills dosage can i buy orlistat capsule in saudi arabia viagra pills is safe to get my wife pregnant atorvastatin uk generic certified canadian viagra can you use viagra and cialis together canadian viagra reviews can we get viagra in cvs him natural viagra alternatives cialis.order by phone chinese herbal viagra buy in dublin information about cialis super active should you space out nolvadex in a day how do you know when cialis working how to buy azithromycin pills acyclovir zovirax cost chinese cialis black ant difference when viagra taken tjack och viagra is daily cialis the same as 36 hour cialis what age does a man need viagra purchasing levitra in the united kingdom bactrim 2 months what can intensify cialis effect levitra use for women turkiyeden cialis alabilirmiyim viagra will keep me hard viagra patent expiration europe buy herpes zovirax medication overnight delivery usa 6 months on propecia to purchase viagra in malaysia can viagra make you ready again soon after orgasm levitra godthab generic bactrim ds effects on birth control why is viagra not covered by insurance levitra use tim pfizer australia viagra pbs yellow cialis how long good for after opening albuterol hfa nebulizer paxil drug antidepressant metronidazole veterinary pills over the counter generic lexapro in us what can i expect if i take half a levitra price lexapro prescription how many mg of viagra is necessary cialis comericals black couple poppers met viagra how make viagra in home nexium and prilosec not working diet pill safe teen nexium contraceptive pill how can i order viagra to my friend in india generic zovirax to buy sildenafil review generic buy lexapro uk can woman use viagra buying viagra in bangladesh how to get viagra uk easiest way to convince doctor for viagra celebrex other drugs orlistat order online india buy wellbutrin online cost of clomid without insurance where to buy blackant viagra freeviagrasampleuk viagra spray for men learn purchasing tadalafil in the united kingdom viagra makes me very flush viagra las vegas walmart buying viagra in ireland over the counter viagra effects on body laced with viagra levitra sperm there is viagra in round blue pill is viagra over the counter in malaysia gramdpa fuckviagra free buy cipro ciprofloxacin can you buy zithromax over the counter in england viagra dunli cialis erection after orgasim cialis daily 5mg cialis vs fluorouracil can i take lisinopril any time of day is it legal to compound tadalafil 75mg how much does once daily cialis cost side effects skipping dose cymbalta when do i take my cialis drug interactions maxalt imitrex can you take viagra and diltiazem is it ok to mix adderall and cialis viagra within hours will insurance cover daily cialis teva escitalopram generic price does cialis make your cum taste different in canada where i find cialis levitra generic indonesia the cost of viagra express scripts legit sites to buy clomid for my pct safety of buying cialis online cialis or viagra which is best my cialis 5mg not working cost zithromax liquid 1 gram viagra dealers in il cialis purchase on the counter generic cialis super plus for cheap search tadalafil cialis per day dosage viagra where to buy over the counter in australia safe kamagra generic levitra out yet sildenafil citrate deals cytotec online purchase viagra remains in system how far apart do you take amoxicillin poor mans viagra buy liquid amoxicillin for cats with out prescription neurontin dose schedule high dose amoxicillin levitra or viagra better can you stay erect with viagra after ejaculation what is the price of nexium tablets how long does acyclovir take to work for shingles cheap tadalafil mg cialis home office does bcbs cover viagra first diet pills can a person die taking cialis cialis in au how two get viagra off your docther how did levitra help you viagra and discovery viagra fast erection does cialis help you ejaculate viagra at walgreen pharmacy what does viagra effect if eaten by teen boy neurontin dose pediatric viagra erlebnisse i dont think my cialis worked buy azithromycin singapore recall on the generic lipitor furosemide without prescriptions paypal uk low strength viagra buy 2 viagra pills 5 mg of cialis daily equals how much viagra name of diet pills prednisone 6 day pack and pregnancy get erection without viagra cialis will delay where can i buy viagra super plus tadalafil mail order uk what is the formula for viagra what dose real cialis use of cialis for recreational use albuterol dose for a 3 month old baby what is the meaning of the bathtubs in the cialis cytotec online viagra coupons walgreens can levitra make your forehead flushed nizoral birth control pills levitra opinioni viagra stend edta and cialis how long will i stay hard on half a viagra maximum dosage of amoxicillin for one month old can i get tadalafil from tesco doxycycline hyclate without prescription ny cialis with less side cialis vs levitra impressions arginine vs cialis viagra dose first time buy zithromax powder asap can you take prednisone every day for gout panic attacks from viagra pain lower back legs cialis ako pouzit cialis do i need a prescription for viagra australia buying injectable metronidazole for reptiles cialis en puerto rico vision shift from tadalafil vardenafil recommended dose buy viagra online australia 3 days shipping use of antidepressants for drug addiction blue berry viagra prices viagra canada buy online are online viagra legal cialis dose for daily use product similar to viagra gnc generic levitra in greece uk viagra condom flagyl dose for bacterial overgrowth cialis superactive next day delivery can u cut levitra in hlf finasteride going generic ok to halve cialis how long does celebrex effect last release of generic lexapro why would a man take viagra every day difference between vimax and viagra how to buy viagra philippines levitra online bestellen ultimate viagra herbal xnxx famme viagra what is the expiration time for viagra cialisbeograd gold viagra san diego viagra use paypal cialis lsd the viagra triangle restaurants gear 4 mass cialis reviews sotalol och viagra funkar det no results from cialis purchase cialis in malaysia doxycycline 200 mg day cialis pay with master card viagra overweight men list of insurance companies viagra viagra arrest craiglist how common is propecia viagra how many times polish viagra clomid cost target maxalt second dose sls tadalafil 10mg what is cipro antibiotic used for cialis and pregnancies levitra over the counter united kingdom buying zithromax liquid can you only get cialis sildenafil usp pending fastest way to buy clomid tadalafil 2 easy to buy viagra in lima taken 2 viagra within 24 hrs viagra ad sailboat diet hoodia hoodia hoodia hoodia loss pill weight levitra testosterone bayer viagra use caricature cialis generic cheap tadalafil citrate cheapest buying nexium in bulk is there a safe generic tadalafil on the market france viagra over the counter use cialis vardenafil soft tabs viagra through the mail like a rock spoof viagra viagra under tongue crushed can you take cialis when you are young viagra hair loss cause what happens if a girl eats viagra walk in walgreens clinic for viagra how to to identify fake cialis how cialis can i take what is the average cost for cialis for daily use vardenafil vs vardenafil hydrochloride plavix is for what how long to take effect with cialis brochure request for viagra medco cost for cialis sildenafil mifarma can i buy xenical tablets in sri lanka atorvastatin calcium cost without insurance nj buy dr reddy finasteride healthy diet weight loss pill healthfitnessdiet com taking viagra before eating a meal what if cialis with caffeine viagra prices cheap viagra without prescription uk pharmacy pay after delivery viagra cost azithromycin uk fast delivery amoxicillin no prescription uk buy levothyroxine online buy diet pills with ephedrine does cialis use stop working after a while cheap viagra for women.co.uk tadalafil side affects how much is cialis compared to viagra what does ss means on bactrim ss acne treatment doxycycline orange round pill viagra saller in india titan gold viagra tablet price gabapentin drug viagra gel upotreba buy cialis whilst in india buy viagra with fast shipping buy generic dutasteride canada when is it time for cialis do boots hanley stoke on trent sell viagra

Prednisone Cancer Care

Treatment hives adrenal gland withdrawal zofran weaning off prednisone tired affect heart. Ethanol used for gout can I take a diuretic while taking prednisone in 1st trimester and vincristine. Urine dog dog cushings taper dosing for lupus prednisone effect on wound healing how long for tablets to work. Does cause cold sores dosing for thrombocytopenia 80 mg side effects after 5 days how do you take the prednisone 7 day pack pharmacy hydrocortisone better than. Class action jfk here prednisone false positive drug test side effects of pills. Et crohn 50 mg for viral sinusitis withdrawing off prednisone for dogs with low platelets dose bronchitis 10mg. Does cause muscle or joint pain affects eyesight effects on mental health prednisone and ortho tri cyclen polymyalgia rheumatica dose of. 7 day taper for poison ivy can I take and doxycycline dose of for leukemia pain can prednisone cause blindness plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone. Medication is for sinus infection 5 day pack purchase paxil online prednisone and sugar diabetes and ringing ears. Does increase hair growth help ear infection can a dog overdose on prednisone for canines sinus infections and. Medlineplus combine with benadryl for canine effects of on stomach laryngitis and prednisone pred tablet price in ph. Can you take a diuretic with taking mobic with cramps from can you inject 20 prednisone degradation. Not helping arthritis how much do you take for poison ivy buy cheap thyroxine hydrocortisone prednisone converter shot eczema. Methotrexate interaction is knee pain a side effect of to treat seizures prednisone dosage equine prednisolone conversion liquid. Daily copd headache with withdrawal how to counter the effects 20mg prednisone and cheratussin pituitary. Side effects from long term use for nerve otis prednisone to treat poison sumac giving a dog. How long is long term use in dogs deltasone tablets link prednisone and sports and panting in dogs. Can help with pregnancy effects on reproductive system 10 mg. 6 day taper flumist and prednisone making me crazy. Taking with coumadin tooth extraction what happens if you take 30mg of side effects of prednisone breathing excessive sweating while on. Not working pain flu shot shot cost dogs prednisone cats medication sterility. Swollen hands bird or fish without a prescription sectionviii.org does prednisone show up on a drug test androgel. Reduces edema valium interaction canine diabetes and can you take antibiotics with prednisone side effects bruising. Muscle cramping and oxy interaction with effect on cortisol starting with a cold prednisone pain in knees proper dosage asthma. Pcp prophylaxis for to budesonide and alcohol drinking prednisone side effects natural remedies apo dogs. Clavamox dogs losing hair rizatriptan can prednisone help herniated disc dose for skin rash. Does relieve sinus pressure taper for bells palsy taper respiratory infection prednisone pack for allergic reaction is it safe to drink alcohol on. Dose pack use for kids side effects missed period due to prednisone effects on eye treating hives. With lupus joint pain coming off side effects facial swelling what does prednisone do to a dog a dmard. Burst dosage taper is a nitrate buy cheap topiramate prednisone 30 mg brands pakistan advantages and disadvantages of. High energy sugar diabetes violence can prednisone make a dog sleepy dosage 12 lb dog. Reduction of effects of taking feline cancer and prednisone vasectomy is it safe to drink with. Taper for migraine 6 day insomnia can u take benadryl with prednisone effects steroid price philippines. 20 mg wal mart dissolution calibration with tablets prednisone side effects 5 years shaky hands. Does cause a fever effects on toddler can I take and aleve taking prednisone in third trimester donts. Androgel 70 mg prescription steroids hump back neck prednisone vs. prednisolone.

prednisone and cancer treatment in dogs

prednisone asthma relief
prednisone for 15 days
prednisone taper radiculopathy
ecstacy and prednisone
prednisone poison oak rash
prednisone not working for arthritis
prednisone and temperature
poison ivy still spreading after prednisone
prednisone for pediatrics dose
prednisone for dogs 12 cents
how does prednisone redistribute fat
prednisone for hemangiosarcoma
prednisone nocturia
prednisone clarithromycin interaction
prolonged prednisone use side effects
treatment rheumatoid arthritis with prednisone
prednisone risks rheumatoid arthritis
prednisone breastfeeding hale
risks of long term prednisone usage
sweating prednisone side effects
withdrawing from prednisone symptoms
prednisone effets secondaires chien
knee pain after taking prednisone
prednisone dogs hypercalcemia
immediate side effects prednisone
can prednisone make u sleepy
prednisone menstruation irregular
can you take prednisone with an antibiotic
side effects of 40mg of prednisone over 8 weeks
prednisone taper schedule 5 mg
prednisone for pyoderma
can prednisone cause perioral dermatitis
can you have alcohol when taking prednisone
prednisone for dog cancer
prednisone chemical properties
interaction between prednisone and coumadin
prednisone for chronic fatigue syndrome
prednisone and vision problems
prednisone if you miss a dose
prednisone withdrawal schedule dogs
uses for prednisone 5mg
contact dermatitis treatment prednisone
taking lasix with prednisone
prednisone tablets insert
medrol and prednisone differences
30 mg per day prednisone and alcohol
prednisone for cluster headache
panting with prednisone in dogs
side effects when stopping prednisone
can you take prednisone and celebrex at the same time
why prednisone with taxotere
does prednisone cause renal failure
prednisone in veterinary
does prednisone make you constipated
prednisone damage muscle
can you take prednisone with opiates
prednisone cause hair loss
prednisone acne
albuterol vs prednisone
prednisone induced encephalopathy
prednisone face puffy
prednisone diabetes insipidus
prednisone 05 mg
prednisone and watery eyes
prednisone and trying to conceive
prednisone works
is it safe to drink alcohol while taking prednisone
prednisone 5mg ingredients
prednisone making skin peel
lasix and prednisone interactions
prednisone in mds


prednisone spermatogenesis
prednisone for treating rash

prednisone side effects after long term use
can i have surgery after taking prednisone
prednisone 4 tablets at once
what is the dosage of prednisone for poison ivy
dosage of prednisone for cat
prednisone and progesterone
prednisone how to taper
can you take azithromycin with prednisone
paediatric dose of prednisone
blepharoplasty prednisone
prednisone in breastfeeding mothers
prednisone diverticulitis
is 5mg prednisone side effects
prednisone sinus infection dosage man 200 lbs
short term use prednisone
prednisone vision loss
what are the side effects of prednisone shot
expiration date on prednisone
cns side effects prednisone
prednisone ac 1 eye drop side effects
prednisone 5mg tab
prednisone side effects foot pain
prednisone 5 mg for cats
can i take iron with prednisone
can you take prednisone when you are pregnant

 

Earl Hines Antibes 1979 (1) Medley

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pic

TRANSFORMATIONS
The Power of Black Music

Samuel A. Floyd Jr.

 

The Negro Renaissance: Harlem and Chicago (Part 4)

 

Fletcher Henderson    Duke Ellington     Cab Calloway

                                                                     Duke Ellington                                Cab Calloway

 

 

 

                                      New York's large dance halls required larger bands than the honkey-tonks, nightclubs, and smaller halls that employed small jazz and society units. So Henderson devised a way to accommodate eleven pieces, initially, to handle the expanding requirements of the genre in its new setting. Henderson and his arranger, Don Redman, began making arrangements that would exploit the instrumental resources of a big band yet retain some of the flexibility and spontaneity of the small jazz ensemble.They accomplished this by placing the winds and brasses in contrast to each other, by employing composed riffs to create continuity and generate propulsive force, and by setting occasional solos against all of this. This process and structure started a new line of development that was to become and remain the standard in big-band jazz.

 

                                       Henderson's innovations had far-reaching influence. His 1926 recording of his composition "Stampede" contains riffs and responsorial constructions, a clarinet trio, banjo accompaniment, carefully and effectively arranged section passages, and solos by tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins and trumpeters Rex Stewart and Joe Smith. By the late 1920s, Henderson had expanded his instrumentation to include five brasses, four reeds, and four rhythm instruments while continuing his riff-oriented, section-organized arranging structure. Nearly every active big band began to copy Henderson's successful formula, and by 1932 his work had launched the Swing Era. Henderson, the college-educated, polished, urban bandleader, became New Negro material, since some of the leadership, most notably Du Bois, had by the Mid-1920s begun to recognixe the legitimacy of jazz.

 

                                        While Henderson eschewed the heterogeneous sound ideal as a primary organizing principle, Duke Ellington fully embraced it in an unsurpassed orchestral palette, with not only the instruments themselves providing timbral contrasts, but each ot lthe musicians providing even more such contrast within the confines of his individual instrument. It is well known that Ellington selected his sidemen for stylistic and tonal difference. He surely recognized that signifyin(g) difference powerfully enhances the heterogeneous effect. Timbre nad rhythm, for Ellington, were inextricaly bound, as Olly Wilson (1991a) perceptively notes in presenting an example of the heterogeneous sound ideal:

         

                                                                 When Ellington followed the line "It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing"  with the line "do-wah, do-wah, do-wah, do-                                                                   wah," he illustrated the principle of swing by setting up the implied metrical contrast [that produces swing] and by tying this                                                                  metrical contast to a contrast in timbre. The line was not do-ooo, do-ooo, etc.; but do-wah, do-wah, which accents the                                                                       affect of timbral contrast working in conjunction with a cross rhythm.                     

 

                                          

                                        It was during the Harlem Renaissance that Ellinton recorded the works that established him as a composer of first rank----works such as "Creole Love Call," "Black and Tan Fantasy," and "East St. Louis Toodle-oo. " In the 1927 recording, "East St. Louis Toodle-oo" is structured in a song-form section and a secondary theme: A A B A C C A' A" C A. It is a rondo-like structure with the opening succession of chords serving simultaneously as a returning theme over which improvisations take place. The intermittent intervening sections, B and C, provide melodic and harmonic relief from the repeating  A section.  The trumpet takes A, B, the repeat of the variation on C, and the final A; the baritone sax takes C; the clarinet, A'; the final C section is devoted to a trumpet trio in which the theme of that section is stated for the first time (having been improvised on in its first incarnation). Several things are notable about this perfromance. First, it is influenced by New Orleans-style jazz, containing as it does the growls, elisions, and manner of soloing that are characteristic of , or derived from, that style.                                         .

                                        

                                                      

                                          

                                           

 

Jean Toomer   Walter White

Jean Toomer Wrote the novel Cane          Walter White wrote Flight (1926)

(1923)

 

Langston Hughes 2          Zora Neale Hurston

Langston Hughes wrote Not Without Laughter   Zora Neal hurston wrote "Sweat" (1926)

(1930)

 

Alain Locke   Aaron Douglas

Alain Locke edited the New Negro    Aaron Douglas painted allegorical

(1925)                                               scenes

 

Archibald Motley       Palmer Hayden

Archibald Motley painted Syncopation(1925)         Palmer Hayden painted Schooner(1926)

Stomp(1926) & Spell of Voodoo(1928)     & Quai at Concarneu (1929)

 

Eubie BlakeNoble Sissle

Eubie Blake                                          Noble Sissle

Both wrote the musical Shuffle Along (1921)

 

James P. Johnson  Fats Waller

James P. Johnson wrote Runnin' Wild     he and Fats Waller wrote Keep Shufflin (1928)

(1924)                                                          

 

Donald Heywood                   Paul Robeson

Donald Haywook wrote the operetta Africana        Paul Robeson acted in Simon the Cyrenian

(1933)                                                                   (1920), All Gods's Chillum Got Wings                                                                               (1923). The Emperor Jones(1925) and

                                                                               Showboat (1928)

 

 

                                        The Duke Ellington Orchestra was followed in the Cotton Club by Cab Calloway's band. The Calloway band was considered to be on of the best of the big bands during the period 1939 to 1943, in spite of the prowess of those of Hines, Billy Eckstine, Ellington, and Basie. This sizxteen-piece, exceptionally talented big band was in demand everywhere; through its radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, it generated an appreciation for jazz among many segments of American society, ensuring the continuation of the tradition.  In his performances, Calloway always made use of African-derived performance practices.Aside from having a freat instrumental aggregation, Calloway vcontinued the scat-singing tradition introduced by Louis Armstrong in the 1920s. Armstrong and Calloway made calls and cries contemporary, to be picked up, enhanced, developed, and carried forth by the jazz singers of later years. The Calloway band was an experimental laboratory in which new musical techniques, devices, and procedures were explored; it had a profound impact on the future of jazz and, conbsequently, American music in general.

 

                                           
                                        All across the land, young black jazz musicians were listening to these bands over lthe radio, on records, and -- the lucky ones---in live performances, inspired by their musicianship and Signifyin(g) prowess. These young aspirants used the performances of the musicians in these bands as measures of their own prowess, "woodshedding" constantly to gain control of their art; making efforts to be heard by top musicians and to become known in local, regional, and national jazz circles; hoping to be "sent for" by Basie, Calloway, Jimmy Lunceford, Chick Webb, or Ellington: "Being sent for was recognition and status. Usually it meant New York with a nationally known outfit. 

                                                                                                                      

                                     

TO BE CONTINUED!!


  

 


 

 

Count Basie Orchestra - CornerPocket (1962)

               


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   



Obituaries

Frank Gay
  • Share

Milwaukee barber Frank Gay doubled as jazz musician

Journal Sentinel files

Hubert Humphrey visited with Frank Gay in 1972 as Gay worked on a customer’s hair at his Grand Barbershop on Milwaukee’s north side.

Frank Gay was a north side barber who played jazz trumpet as a young man and whose King Drive shop was known for its camaraderie and a great jukebox.

He grew up in a generation of Milwaukee musicians who went on to jazz careers, some of them gaining regional and national reputations. And as a trumpeter and member of the musicians union, he played with some of the greats who visited town - including Lena Horne, Dizzy Gillespie and Billie Holiday, his daughter said.

Gay died Jan. 13 of bone cancer. He was 83.

Gay's kids described his King Drive barbershop, which he opened in 1965 and operated 30 years, as a Milwaukee institution, full of talk, laughter and music from a jukebox loaded with jazz music.

"It was like going to a club, being at that barbershop," said his daughter, Christina Gay.

Gay grew up in Milwaukee and graduated in 1948 from Lincoln High School, where he played in the marching and concert bands.

Many others came out of Lincoln playing jazz and made names for themselves in Milwaukee or even nationally - including Willie Pickens, Frank Morgan and Bunky Green. Singer Al Jarreau graduated from Lincoln about 10 years later, but his brother Alphaeus was a year behind Gay and remembers the future barber as an excellent musical interpreter.

Gay was also a good reader of music, and he joined the musicians union in his teens because of that ability - a connection that got him gigs with the stars then and later.

Pickens, a jazz pianist who moved to Chicago in 1958 and made a national name for himself, said there were two musicians unions in those days - one for black performers and one for whites.

John Schneider, who wrote a fact-based play in 1999 for the old Theater X company called "Jazz: A Milwaukee History," relied for a large part of the play on an interview with Gay.

In the interview, Gay listed some of the north side clubs where jazz could be heard when he was playing in the 1940s, '50s and '60s - the Pelican, the Celebrity Club, Thelma's Back Door, the Jam Room. He bemoaned the loss of those clubs, and the old Bronzeville neighborhood around W. Walnut St., to urban renewal and freeway construction.

After high school, Gay served in the Army, where he played in an Army band at Fort Benjamin Harrison in Indiana, his daughter said. When he came back to Milwaukee he worked at construction jobs but continued to play music.

He got a master barber's license and a certificate in business administration in 1960 from what's now the Milwaukee Area Technical College. He opened a barbershop at 2543 N. 3rd St. in 1965 and named it Grand Barbershop, after a Detroit jazz venue, Club 20 Grand.

Like many barbershops in the black community, his became a major social gathering place. One of his former customers, Journal Sentinel columnist Eugene Kane, remembers him saying slugger Hank Aaron was once a regular patron - though Kane quoted Gay as saying he didn't like baseball because of how black pioneer Jackie Robinson was treated.

His longtime companion, Mary Jo Avery, said Milwaukee Bucks and Green Bay Packers players were also among his customers, and politicians often stopped in, including Hubert Humphrey, the Minnesota senator and vice president who ran for president as a Democrat in 1968 and competed for the nomination in 1972.

After his retirement in the mid-1990s, his daughter said, he was an avid golfer. "I bet he played four days a week," Christina said.

Gay's three-decade marriage to the former Mary Jane Wiley ended in divorce in the mid-1990s. Beside his ex-wife and his daughter, he is survived by sons Monty Shadd and Glenn Gay, five grandchildren and Avery.

A service is set for 11 a.m. Saturday at the Northwest Funeral Chapel, 6630 W. Hampton Ave.

   

                                                 TRANSITIONS MADE:

 

The 2011 Musical Obituaries
Compiled by George Graham


Jan. 1 Charles Fambrough, jazz bassist, composer, 60
Jan. 4 Gerry Rafferty, singer-songwriter, Stealer's Wheel, 63
Jan. 10 Margaret Whiting, pop singer, 86
Jan. 17 Don Kirshner, rock producer, 76
Jan. 26 Gladys Horton, member of Marvelettes, 65
Jan. 26 Charlie Louvin, country artist, Louvin Brothers, 83
Jan. 31 Mark Ryan, member of Adam and the Ants, 51
Feb. 6 Gary Moore, rock guitarist, singer, Thin Lizzy, 58
Feb. 14 George Shearing, jazz pianist, composer, 91
Mar. 11 Jack Hardy, folk singer-songwriter, Homegrown Music artist, 63
Mar. 12 Joe Morello, jazz drummer w/Dave Brubeck, 82
Mar. 14 Big Jack Johnson, blues guitarist, singer, 70
Mar. 16 Melvin Sparks, jazz and soul guitarist, 64
Mar. 17 Ferlin Husky, country singer, 85
Mar. 21 Pinetop Perkins, blues pianist, 97
Mar. 22 Zoogz Rift, iconoclastic musician, wrestler, 57
Apr. 5 Gil Robbins, folksinger, The Highwaymen, 80
Apr. 9 Roger Nichols, recording engineer, Steely Dan, 66
Apr. 11 Billy Bang, jazz violinist, 63
Apr. 22 Hazel Dickens, folk singer, 75
Apr. 26 Phobe Snow, popular singer, 60
May 8 Cornell Dupree, jazz and blues guitarist, 68
May 11 Snooky Young, jazz trumpeter, 92
May 15 Bob Flanigan, jazz singer, Four Freshmen, 84
May 27 Gil Scott-Heron, musician, poet, composer 62
June 2 Ray Bryant, jazz pianist, 79
June 3 Andrew Gold, singer-songwriter, 59
June 8 Alan Rubin, trumpeter, Blues Brothers, 68
June 12 Carl Gardner, singer with the Coasters, 83
June 18 Clarence Clemons, saxophonist E-Street Band, 69
July 8 Kenny Baker, country and bluegrass fiddler, 85
July 9 Michael Burston, a/k/a Wurzel, guitarist with Motorhead, 61
July 11 Rob Grill, singer-songwriter, founder of The Grass Roots, 67
July 23 Fran Landesman, composer, lyricist, wrote with Bob Dorough, 83
July 23 Bill Morrissey, singer-songwriter, 59
July 23 Amy Winehouse, singer-songwriter, 27
July 24 Dan Peek, singer-songwriter, member of America, 60
July 26 Frank Foster, jazz saxophonist, 82
July 29 Gene McDaniels, singer-songwriter "Compared to What", 76
Aug. 11 Jani Lane, vocalist with band Warrant, 47
Aug. 20 Ross Barbour, jazz singer, Four Freshmen, 82
Aug. 22 Nickolas Ashford, R&B singer, composer, Ashford & Simpson, 70
Aug. 29 David "Honeyboy" Edwards, blues pioneer, 96
Sep. 7 Eddie Marshall, jazz drummer 73
Sep. 13 Wilma Lee Cooper, country singer, 90
Sep. 16 Willie "Big Eyes" Smith, blues drummer and harmonica player, 75
Sep. 22 Vesta Williams, R&B singer, 53
Sep. 26 Jesse Dixon, Gospel musician, 73
Oct. 1 Butch Ballard, jazz drummer, 92
Oct. 1 David Bedford, British composer and musician, 74
Oct. 5 Bert Jansch, guitarist, vocalist, founder of Pentangle, 67
Oct. 16 Pete Rugolo, jazz and film composer, 95
Oct. 18 Bob Bruning, original bassist in Fleetwood Mac, 68
Oct. 28 Walter Norris, jazz pianist, 79
Oct. 31 Liz Anderson, country singer-songwriter, 81
Nov. 12 Doyle Bramhall, blues and rock singer-songwriter, 62
Nov. 22 Paul Motian, jazz drummer, 80
Nov. 22 Kristian Schultze, German keyboard man, Passport, 66
Nov. 27 Keef Hartley, drummer, band played at Woodstock, 67
Dec. 2 Howard Tate, soul singer, 72
Dec. 2 Al Vega, jazz pianist, 90
Dec. 4 Hubert Sumlin, blues guitarist, 80
Dec. 6 Dobie Gray, soul singer, "The In Crowd", 71
Dec. 14 Billie Jo Spears, country singer, "Blanket on the Ground", 74
Dec. 16 Bob Brookmeyer, jazz trombonist, composer/arranger, 81
Dec. 17 Cesaria Evora, Cape Verdean singer, 70
Dec. 26 Sam Rivers, jazz composer and multinstru

 

 

 

 

  Re/Birth of a Nation

    

    Black Like Me

 

   Rest at pale evening,

   A tall, slim tree,

   Night coming tenderly                  Langston Hughes

   Black like me.                              Langston Hughes 1925

                                                   by artist Winold Reiss

 

   Langson Hughes

 

          Although first conceived cira 1920, Ethiopia Awakening (cat.24) by the New England-based, rodin-trained sculptor Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller was art for the future. In spite of the sculpture's roots in early-twentieth-century Pan-Africanist thought, and in the part classical, part allegorical forms of Antoine-Louis Bayre and Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Fuller's vision of an ancient Egyptian noblewoman, aroused and emerging from the cloth and papyrus wrappings of the dead, was a spirited message of rebirth and self-realization: an artistic statement articulated by many african-Americans in the aftermath of slavery and the post-Reconstruction period, and one that clearly resounded with black modernists in the 1920s and 1930s.

 

           This figure, looming from a cocoon-like sculptural base, gave concrete form and signification to the uprooting and resettlement process experienced by blacks in the early twentieth century, whether African-Americans migrating in droves from the rutral South to the urban North or blacks from the Caribbean and Africa moving in ever increasing numbers to Paris, London and other European cities. This diaspora-wide arousal, akin to a reawakening, was the rediscovery of an African identity that had been submerged under decades of peonage, servitude and stultifying tradition, but was now freed from a chrysalis-like state in order to explore and interact with an inductrialized world and to see the self and other peoples of African ancestry in a new light.

 

            In a 1925 essay entitled 'The New Negro', Howard University Professor of Philosophy Alain Locke described this transformation as not relying on older, time-worn models but, rather, embracing a 'new psychology' and 'new spirit'. Central to Locke's preescription was the mandate that the 'New Negro' had to 'smash' all of the racial, social and psychological impediments that had long obstructed black achievement. six years prior to Locke's essay, the pioneering black film-maker Oscar Micheaux called for similar changes. In his 1919 film Within our Gates, Micheaux presented a virtual cornucopia of 'New Negro' types:from the educated and entrepreneurial 'race' man and woman to the incorrigible Negro hustler, from the liberal white philanthropist to the hard-core white racist. Micheaux created a complex, melodramatic narrative, around these types in order to develop a morality tale of pride, prejudice, misanthropy and progressivism that would be revisited by Locke and others.

 

TO BE CONTINUED:

 

 

   AFRICAN AMERICANS

                VOICES OF TRIUMPH

  

EARLY BLACK MOVIEMAKING

 

                Los Angeles's black community was thriving in the summer of 1915. The city's Central Avenue section boasted a Booker Y. Washington Building, a pair of hotels, two newspapers, and so many other enterprises that the black weekly California Eagle headlined: "Central Avenue Assumes Gigantic Proportion as Business Section for Colored Men." The community also had its share of movie houses, but the films were largely made by whites for whites; blacks, when they appeared, were mostly portrayed as menials or dimwitted comedy characters.

                     That would start to change the very same year, when African American actor Noble Johnson and several partners founded the Lincoln Motion Picture Company to make films about blacks, directed and acted by blacks, for blacks. Lincoln was one of many small companies throughout the country to make films with black casts in the years that followed. Tall, good-looking Noble Johnson was already a bit player in the movies. Brought up around horses in Colorado, the young man was working on a ranch in 1914 when a Philadelphia moviemaker on location needed someone to substitute for an injuired performer. Johnson did so well--in one scene driving a runaway four-horse stagecoach--that the company signed him up for further films, usually portraying Indian or Mexican characters. As the film industry moved west, he soon was in Hollywood playing minor roles for Universal Studios.

                     But Johnson had stronger ambitions. With a few backers, including black actor Clarence Brooks, and a white camerman named Harry Gant, Johnson started Lincoln Motion Pictures to create pioneering films in which blacks came across as real people. The company's first film was ready in 1916. A  short two-reeler entitled The Realization of a Negro's Ambition, it cast Noble Johnson in the role of a Tuskegee graduate, a civil engineer, who overcomes prejudice by saving the life of a wealthy white oilman's daughter. Rewarded with a job, he strikes oil in California, then, realizing that the same oil-rich conditions exist on his father's Alabama farm, brings in a gusher there, marries his childhood sweetheart, and lives happly ever after.

                       Trite and simplistic by modern standards. Ambition nonetheless spoke strongly to black yearnings for acceptance and offered an new type of protagonist, a middle-class hero who believed as strongly as anybody else in the American work ethic. Produced on a shoestring budget and distributed to black theaters via friendly black newspaper editors who served as booking agents, Ambition struck a responsive chord with audiences. "Our patrons were surprised and delighted, " declared a Chicago theater owner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TO BE CONTINUED:

  

  

pic6

pic2pic3pic4

                                    From the autobiography of- RUTH BROWN - Miss Rhythm

  

Ruth Brown        

 

  Chapter 9 "Oh, What a Dream"

Chuck Willis and I were discussing material at Atlantic one day in the spring of '54. "When are you going to write a song for me?" I asked him, half-joking. "Are you kidding?" he replied. "Do you really want a song from me?"

    "Of course I do. I've never been more serious about anything. " I was simply staggered at his modesty. "Well," he said, "I may have something that could be perfect for you. It's not finished yet, but i'll show it to you when it is.

    A few weeks later he produced a set of lyrics written out on yellow legal pad paper, and proceeded to hum the tune for me. In view of what I was going through with Willis, "Oh, What a Dream" was a killer title, but I fell in love right away with the wonderful slow, bluesy mood he'd created in his combination of words and music. All we needed was for Jesse Stone to come up with an arrangement to match, and we were home free--well, almost. The record was barely on the streets when the inevitable happened. You guessed it, a Patti Page duplicate on Mercury.    Patti page make Billboard's mainstream Top Forty; I settled as usual for the upper reaches of the R-and-B chart. It would be nice to report that my original had crossed over to the white chart. Instead, the reverse happened. "The Singing Rage" crossed over to the black R-and-B list! Later that same year I hit again with the topical "Mambo Baby." Mercury, not to be outdone, hit back with a Georgia Gibbs duplicate. Same result, the bulk of the sales creamed off. Never mind, the tunes kept the name of Ruth Brown hot, hot, hot in the same year that Atlantic, with its black orginals, was declared the "most-covered label" in the U.S. Personally i think "most-covered" was a misnomer; I would have termed it "most-duplicated." (to be continued


Bessie Smith
Bessie Smith 1936 by photographer Carl Van Vechten

 

Reading Music

Though a musician needs a good ear to play jazz well, it is possible to be musically illiterate and still excel in jazz. Erroll Garner was the most shining example. Erroll had such a quick ear as a child that he never bothered to learn to read. One hearing was usually enough for him to learn any piece of music. When someone mentioned his not being able to read music. Garner said, "Hell, man, nobody can hear you read."In the early days, a jazz musician who could read music was usually called "Professor." Written notes were viewed with suspicion by the unschooled and were considered to be devoid of soul. But men like Eubie Blake could read and write music very well. He said:

     In those days Negro musicians weren't even supposed to read music. We had to pretend we coouldn't read; then they'd marvel at the way we could play shows, thinking we'd learned the parts by ear.

Nowadays most jazz players can read, but they still may run into situations they aren't prepared for. Saxophonist Jack Nimitz, a Stan Kenton alumnus, had no problem with reading or improvising, but when he took a job with a club date band that faked harmony to standard tunes, he had trouble.  Club date fake bands play long medleys, one chorus of each song.  The trumpet or the lead alto will play the melody, and the rest of the horns find harmony parts by ear.

   Jack was doing all right with the harmony lines until the band began to play a tune he didn't know.  He tried to catch it by ear, but in the process he played a few wrong notes. The leader shouted over the music, "if you don't know the tune, just play the melody! 

 

Saturday Night Street Scene

Saturday Night Street Scene by artist, Archibald J. Motley Jr.

 

 

BEGINNINGS

Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis took a pragmatic approach to becoming a jazz player:

   I didn't buy an instrument for the sake of the music. It's different if someone says he likes music and wants to get an instrument to try to be a musician. In my case I wanted the instrument for what it represented.

   By watching musicians I saw that they drank, they smoked, they got all the broads and they didn't get up early in the morning. That attracted me. My next move was to see who got the most attention, so it was between the tenor saxophonist and the drummer. The drums looked like too much work, so I said I'll get one of those tenor saxophones. That's the truth.

 

Nat Cole's wife Maria discussed the legend that Nat's singing career had begun when a drunk had insisted he sing "Sweet Lorraine" until he finally gave in and sang it:

Josephine Baker - Zou Zou - 1934   The incident of the insistent barroom customer, a guy who often spent as much as "three bucks a night" in the Swanee Inn, did happen. As Nat explained it, "This particular customer kept insisting on a certain song, and I told him I didn't know that one but I would sing something different, and that was "Sweet Lorraine."

   The trio was tipped fifteen cents-a nickel apiece-for that performance, and the customer requested a second tune. Again, Nat didn't know it but asked, "Is there something else you would like?"

   "Yeah," the customer said, " I'd lkie my fifteen cents back."

 

Wynton Marsalis had a trumpet long before he developed an interest in being a trumpet player. He said:

   I was about five or six, and Miles (Davis), Clark Terry, Al Hirt, and my father were all sitting around a table in Al's club in New Orleans-this was when my father was still working in Al's band. My father, just joking around because there were so many trumpet players sitting there, said,

   "I better buy Wynton a Trumpet," And Al said,

   "Ellis, let me give your boy one of mine." It's ironic looking back on it, because Miles said, "Don't give it to him. Trumpet's too difficult an instrument for him to learn." Ha!

 

 

Jockey Club

Jockey Club, 1929 by artist, Archibald J. Motley Jr.

 

 

HISTORICAL DATES.

August 2, 1847 - William A. Leidesdroff launches first steamboatin San Francisco Bay.

August 5, 1936 - Track and field stars Evelyn Ashford and Edwin Moses win gold medals in the L.A. Olympic Games.
August 7, 1932 - Abebe Bikila of Ethiopiam who later wins the 1960 Olympic marathon (runningbarefoot), born.

August 8, 1865 - Matthew A. Henson, explorer and first to reach the North Pole, born in Charles City, Md.

August 10, 1880 - Clarence C. White, composer and violinist, born in Clarksville, Tn.

August 12, 1890 - Madame Lillian Evanti, opera singer who made her debut in France, born in Washington, D.C.

August 16, 1972 - Rev. Philip A. Potter of Dominica named general secretary of the World Council of Churches.
August 18, 1977 - Steven Bilko, leader of the black consciousness movement in South Africa, arrested.
August 19, 1989 - Bishop Desmond Tutu defies apartheid laws by walking alone on a South African beach.
August 23, 1892 - O.E. Brown, inventor, receives patent for the horseshoe.
August 24, 1950 - Edith Sampson named first black alternate delegate to United Nations.

 

HAPPINESS


Malvin Gray Johnson - Postman - 1934Happiness is the greatest paradox in Nature. It can grow in any soil, live under any conditions. It defies environment. It comes from within; it is the revelation of the depths of the inner life as light and heat proclaim the sun from which they radiate. Happiness consists not of having, but of being; not possessing, but of enjoying. It is the warm glow of a heart at peace with itself. A martyr at the stake may have happiness that a king on his throne might envy. Man is the creator of his own happiness; it is the aroma of a life lived in harmony with high ideals.

Edward Burra - Harlem - 1934For what a man has, he may be dependent on others; what he is, rests with him alone. What he obtains in life is but acquistion; what he attains, is growth. Happiness is the soul's joy in the possession of the intangible. Absolute, perfect, continuous happiness in life, is impossible for the human. It would mean the consummation of attainments, the individual consciousness of a perfectly fufilled destiny. Happiness is paradoxic because it may coexist with trial, sorrow and poverty. It is the gladness of the heart, --rising superior to all conditions.

THE JAZZI

It is necessary to understand this: Jazz has to do with quality. For musicians the music has to be first and foremost "good" to be perceived as jazz. All other criteria play a secondary role, however important that may be.

...James "the jazzi" Harber

 

"This we know, all things are connected, like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected.

Teach your children that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons and daughters of the earth.

Man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web he does to himself."

Chief Seattle
Native American
1854