Earl Hines Antibes 1979 (1) Medley
The Power of Black Music
Samuel A. Floyd Jr.
The Negro Renaissance: Harlem and Chicago (Part 4)
Duke Ellington Cab Calloway
New York's large dance halls required larger bands than the honkey-tonks, nightclubs, and smaller halls that employed small jazz and society units. So Henderson devised a way to accommodate eleven pieces, initially, to handle the expanding requirements of the genre in its new setting. Henderson and his arranger, Don Redman, began making arrangements that would exploit the instrumental resources of a big band yet retain some of the flexibility and spontaneity of the small jazz ensemble.They accomplished this by placing the winds and brasses in contrast to each other, by employing composed riffs to create continuity and generate propulsive force, and by setting occasional solos against all of this. This process and structure started a new line of development that was to become and remain the standard in big-band jazz.
Henderson's innovations had far-reaching influence. His 1926 recording of his composition "Stampede" contains riffs and responsorial constructions, a clarinet trio, banjo accompaniment, carefully and effectively arranged section passages, and solos by tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins and trumpeters Rex Stewart and Joe Smith. By the late 1920s, Henderson had expanded his instrumentation to include five brasses, four reeds, and four rhythm instruments while continuing his riff-oriented, section-organized arranging structure. Nearly every active big band began to copy Henderson's successful formula, and by 1932 his work had launched the Swing Era. Henderson, the college-educated, polished, urban bandleader, became New Negro material, since some of the leadership, most notably Du Bois, had by the Mid-1920s begun to recognixe the legitimacy of jazz.
While Henderson eschewed the heterogeneous sound ideal as a primary organizing principle, Duke Ellington fully embraced it in an unsurpassed orchestral palette, with not only the instruments themselves providing timbral contrasts, but each ot lthe musicians providing even more such contrast within the confines of his individual instrument. It is well known that Ellington selected his sidemen for stylistic and tonal difference. He surely recognized that signifyin(g) difference powerfully enhances the heterogeneous effect. Timbre nad rhythm, for Ellington, were inextricaly bound, as Olly Wilson (1991a) perceptively notes in presenting an example of the heterogeneous sound ideal:
When Ellington followed the line "It don't mean a thing if it ain't got that swing" with the line "do-wah, do-wah, do-wah, do- wah," he illustrated the principle of swing by setting up the implied metrical contrast [that produces swing] and by tying this metrical contast to a contrast in timbre. The line was not do-ooo, do-ooo, etc.; but do-wah, do-wah, which accents the affect of timbral contrast working in conjunction with a cross rhythm.
It was during the Harlem Renaissance that Ellinton recorded the works that established him as a composer of first rank----works such as "Creole Love Call," "Black and Tan Fantasy," and "East St. Louis Toodle-oo. " In the 1927 recording, "East St. Louis Toodle-oo" is structured in a song-form section and a secondary theme: A A B A C C A' A" C A. It is a rondo-like structure with the opening succession of chords serving simultaneously as a returning theme over which improvisations take place. The intermittent intervening sections, B and C, provide melodic and harmonic relief from the repeating A section. The trumpet takes A, B, the repeat of the variation on C, and the final A; the baritone sax takes C; the clarinet, A'; the final C section is devoted to a trumpet trio in which the theme of that section is stated for the first time (having been improvised on in its first incarnation). Several things are notable about this perfromance. First, it is influenced by New Orleans-style jazz, containing as it does the growls, elisions, and manner of soloing that are characteristic of , or derived from, that style. .
Jean Toomer Wrote the novel Cane Walter White wrote Flight (1926)
Langston Hughes wrote Not Without Laughter Zora Neal hurston wrote "Sweat" (1926)
Alain Locke edited the New Negro Aaron Douglas painted allegorical
Archibald Motley painted Syncopation(1925) Palmer Hayden painted Schooner(1926)
Stomp(1926) & Spell of Voodoo(1928) & Quai at Concarneu (1929)
Eubie Blake Noble Sissle
Both wrote the musical Shuffle Along (1921)
James P. Johnson wrote Runnin' Wild he and Fats Waller wrote Keep Shufflin (1928)
Donald Haywook wrote the operetta Africana Paul Robeson acted in Simon the Cyrenian
(1933) (1920), All Gods's Chillum Got Wings (1923). The Emperor Jones(1925) and
The Duke Ellington Orchestra was followed in the Cotton Club by Cab Calloway's band. The Calloway band was considered to be on of the best of the big bands during the period 1939 to 1943, in spite of the prowess of those of Hines, Billy Eckstine, Ellington, and Basie. This sizxteen-piece, exceptionally talented big band was in demand everywhere; through its radio broadcasts from the Cotton Club, it generated an appreciation for jazz among many segments of American society, ensuring the continuation of the tradition. In his performances, Calloway always made use of African-derived performance practices.Aside from having a freat instrumental aggregation, Calloway vcontinued the scat-singing tradition introduced by Louis Armstrong in the 1920s. Armstrong and Calloway made calls and cries contemporary, to be picked up, enhanced, developed, and carried forth by the jazz singers of later years. The Calloway band was an experimental laboratory in which new musical techniques, devices, and procedures were explored; it had a profound impact on the future of jazz and, conbsequently, American music in general.
All across the land, young black jazz musicians were listening to these bands over lthe radio, on records, and -- the lucky ones---in live performances, inspired by their musicianship and Signifyin(g) prowess. These young aspirants used the performances of the musicians in these bands as measures of their own prowess, "woodshedding" constantly to gain control of their art; making efforts to be heard by top musicians and to become known in local, regional, and national jazz circles; hoping to be "sent for" by Basie, Calloway, Jimmy Lunceford, Chick Webb, or Ellington: "Being sent for was recognition and status. Usually it meant New York with a nationally known outfit.
TO BE CONTINUED!!
Count Basie Orchestra - CornerPocket (1962)
Milwaukee barber Frank Gay doubled as jazz musician
Journal Sentinel files
Hubert Humphrey visited with Frank Gay in 1972 as Gay worked on a customer’s hair at his Grand Barbershop on Milwaukee’s north side.
Jan. 20, 2012
Frank Gay was a north side barber who played jazz trumpet as a young man and whose King Drive shop was known for its camaraderie and a great jukebox.
He grew up in a generation of Milwaukee musicians who went on to jazz careers, some of them gaining regional and national reputations. And as a trumpeter and member of the musicians union, he played with some of the greats who visited town - including Lena Horne, Dizzy Gillespie and Billie Holiday, his daughter said.
Gay died Jan. 13 of bone cancer. He was 83.
Gay's kids described his King Drive barbershop, which he opened in 1965 and operated 30 years, as a Milwaukee institution, full of talk, laughter and music from a jukebox loaded with jazz music.
"It was like going to a club, being at that barbershop," said his daughter, Christina Gay.
Gay grew up in Milwaukee and graduated in 1948 from Lincoln High School, where he played in the marching and concert bands.
Many others came out of Lincoln playing jazz and made names for themselves in Milwaukee or even nationally - including Willie Pickens, Frank Morgan and Bunky Green. Singer Al Jarreau graduated from Lincoln about 10 years later, but his brother Alphaeus was a year behind Gay and remembers the future barber as an excellent musical interpreter.
Gay was also a good reader of music, and he joined the musicians union in his teens because of that ability - a connection that got him gigs with the stars then and later.
Pickens, a jazz pianist who moved to Chicago in 1958 and made a national name for himself, said there were two musicians unions in those days - one for black performers and one for whites.
John Schneider, who wrote a fact-based play in 1999 for the old Theater X company called "Jazz: A Milwaukee History," relied for a large part of the play on an interview with Gay.
In the interview, Gay listed some of the north side clubs where jazz could be heard when he was playing in the 1940s, '50s and '60s - the Pelican, the Celebrity Club, Thelma's Back Door, the Jam Room. He bemoaned the loss of those clubs, and the old Bronzeville neighborhood around W. Walnut St., to urban renewal and freeway construction.
After high school, Gay served in the Army, where he played in an Army band at Fort Benjamin Harrison in Indiana, his daughter said. When he came back to Milwaukee he worked at construction jobs but continued to play music.
He got a master barber's license and a certificate in business administration in 1960 from what's now the Milwaukee Area Technical College. He opened a barbershop at 2543 N. 3rd St. in 1965 and named it Grand Barbershop, after a Detroit jazz venue, Club 20 Grand.
Like many barbershops in the black community, his became a major social gathering place. One of his former customers, Journal Sentinel columnist Eugene Kane, remembers him saying slugger Hank Aaron was once a regular patron - though Kane quoted Gay as saying he didn't like baseball because of how black pioneer Jackie Robinson was treated.
His longtime companion, Mary Jo Avery, said Milwaukee Bucks and Green Bay Packers players were also among his customers, and politicians often stopped in, including Hubert Humphrey, the Minnesota senator and vice president who ran for president as a Democrat in 1968 and competed for the nomination in 1972.
After his retirement in the mid-1990s, his daughter said, he was an avid golfer. "I bet he played four days a week," Christina said.
Gay's three-decade marriage to the former Mary Jane Wiley ended in divorce in the mid-1990s. Beside his ex-wife and his daughter, he is survived by sons Monty Shadd and Glenn Gay, five grandchildren and Avery.
A service is set for 11 a.m. Saturday at the Northwest Funeral Chapel, 6630 W. Hampton Ave.
The 2011 Musical Obituaries
Compiled by George Graham
Jan. 1 Charles Fambrough, jazz bassist, composer, 60
Jan. 4 Gerry Rafferty, singer-songwriter, Stealer's Wheel, 63
Jan. 10 Margaret Whiting, pop singer, 86
Jan. 17 Don Kirshner, rock producer, 76
Jan. 26 Gladys Horton, member of Marvelettes, 65
Jan. 26 Charlie Louvin, country artist, Louvin Brothers, 83
Jan. 31 Mark Ryan, member of Adam and the Ants, 51
Feb. 6 Gary Moore, rock guitarist, singer, Thin Lizzy, 58
Feb. 14 George Shearing, jazz pianist, composer, 91
Mar. 11 Jack Hardy, folk singer-songwriter, Homegrown Music artist, 63
Mar. 12 Joe Morello, jazz drummer w/Dave Brubeck, 82
Mar. 14 Big Jack Johnson, blues guitarist, singer, 70
Mar. 16 Melvin Sparks, jazz and soul guitarist, 64
Mar. 17 Ferlin Husky, country singer, 85
Mar. 21 Pinetop Perkins, blues pianist, 97
Mar. 22 Zoogz Rift, iconoclastic musician, wrestler, 57
Apr. 5 Gil Robbins, folksinger, The Highwaymen, 80
Apr. 9 Roger Nichols, recording engineer, Steely Dan, 66
Apr. 11 Billy Bang, jazz violinist, 63
Apr. 22 Hazel Dickens, folk singer, 75
Apr. 26 Phobe Snow, popular singer, 60
May 8 Cornell Dupree, jazz and blues guitarist, 68
May 11 Snooky Young, jazz trumpeter, 92
May 15 Bob Flanigan, jazz singer, Four Freshmen, 84
May 27 Gil Scott-Heron, musician, poet, composer 62
June 2 Ray Bryant, jazz pianist, 79
June 3 Andrew Gold, singer-songwriter, 59
June 8 Alan Rubin, trumpeter, Blues Brothers, 68
June 12 Carl Gardner, singer with the Coasters, 83
June 18 Clarence Clemons, saxophonist E-Street Band, 69
July 8 Kenny Baker, country and bluegrass fiddler, 85
July 9 Michael Burston, a/k/a Wurzel, guitarist with Motorhead, 61
July 11 Rob Grill, singer-songwriter, founder of The Grass Roots, 67
July 23 Fran Landesman, composer, lyricist, wrote with Bob Dorough, 83
July 23 Bill Morrissey, singer-songwriter, 59
July 23 Amy Winehouse, singer-songwriter, 27
July 24 Dan Peek, singer-songwriter, member of America, 60
July 26 Frank Foster, jazz saxophonist, 82
July 29 Gene McDaniels, singer-songwriter "Compared to What", 76
Aug. 11 Jani Lane, vocalist with band Warrant, 47
Aug. 20 Ross Barbour, jazz singer, Four Freshmen, 82
Aug. 22 Nickolas Ashford, R&B singer, composer, Ashford & Simpson, 70
Aug. 29 David "Honeyboy" Edwards, blues pioneer, 96
Sep. 7 Eddie Marshall, jazz drummer 73
Sep. 13 Wilma Lee Cooper, country singer, 90
Sep. 16 Willie "Big Eyes" Smith, blues drummer and harmonica player, 75
Sep. 22 Vesta Williams, R&B singer, 53
Sep. 26 Jesse Dixon, Gospel musician, 73
Oct. 1 Butch Ballard, jazz drummer, 92
Oct. 1 David Bedford, British composer and musician, 74
Oct. 5 Bert Jansch, guitarist, vocalist, founder of Pentangle, 67
Oct. 16 Pete Rugolo, jazz and film composer, 95
Oct. 18 Bob Bruning, original bassist in Fleetwood Mac, 68
Oct. 28 Walter Norris, jazz pianist, 79
Oct. 31 Liz Anderson, country singer-songwriter, 81
Nov. 12 Doyle Bramhall, blues and rock singer-songwriter, 62
Nov. 22 Paul Motian, jazz drummer, 80
Nov. 22 Kristian Schultze, German keyboard man, Passport, 66
Nov. 27 Keef Hartley, drummer, band played at Woodstock, 67
Dec. 2 Howard Tate, soul singer, 72
Dec. 2 Al Vega, jazz pianist, 90
Dec. 4 Hubert Sumlin, blues guitarist, 80
Dec. 6 Dobie Gray, soul singer, "The In Crowd", 71
Dec. 14 Billie Jo Spears, country singer, "Blanket on the Ground", 74
Dec. 16 Bob Brookmeyer, jazz trombonist, composer/arranger, 81
Dec. 17 Cesaria Evora, Cape Verdean singer, 70
Dec. 26 Sam Rivers, jazz composer and multinstru
Re/Birth of a Nation
Black Like Me
Rest at pale evening,
A tall, slim tree,
Night coming tenderly
Black like me. Langston Hughes 1925
by artist Winold Reiss
Although first conceived cira 1920, Ethiopia Awakening (cat.24) by the New England-based, rodin-trained sculptor Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller was art for the future. In spite of the sculpture's roots in early-twentieth-century Pan-Africanist thought, and in the part classical, part allegorical forms of Antoine-Louis Bayre and Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Fuller's vision of an ancient Egyptian noblewoman, aroused and emerging from the cloth and papyrus wrappings of the dead, was a spirited message of rebirth and self-realization: an artistic statement articulated by many african-Americans in the aftermath of slavery and the post-Reconstruction period, and one that clearly resounded with black modernists in the 1920s and 1930s.
This figure, looming from a cocoon-like sculptural base, gave concrete form and signification to the uprooting and resettlement process experienced by blacks in the early twentieth century, whether African-Americans migrating in droves from the rutral South to the urban North or blacks from the Caribbean and Africa moving in ever increasing numbers to Paris, London and other European cities. This diaspora-wide arousal, akin to a reawakening, was the rediscovery of an African identity that had been submerged under decades of peonage, servitude and stultifying tradition, but was now freed from a chrysalis-like state in order to explore and interact with an inductrialized world and to see the self and other peoples of African ancestry in a new light.
In a 1925 essay entitled 'The New Negro', Howard University Professor of Philosophy Alain Locke described this transformation as not relying on older, time-worn models but, rather, embracing a 'new psychology' and 'new spirit'. Central to Locke's preescription was the mandate that the 'New Negro' had to 'smash' all of the racial, social and psychological impediments that had long obstructed black achievement. six years prior to Locke's essay, the pioneering black film-maker Oscar Micheaux called for similar changes. In his 1919 film Within our Gates, Micheaux presented a virtual cornucopia of 'New Negro' types:from the educated and entrepreneurial 'race' man and woman to the incorrigible Negro hustler, from the liberal white philanthropist to the hard-core white racist. Micheaux created a complex, melodramatic narrative, around these types in order to develop a morality tale of pride, prejudice, misanthropy and progressivism that would be revisited by Locke and others.
TO BE CONTINUED:
VOICES OF TRIUMPH
EARLY BLACK MOVIEMAKING
Los Angeles's black community was thriving in the summer of 1915. The city's Central Avenue section boasted a Booker Y. Washington Building, a pair of hotels, two newspapers, and so many other enterprises that the black weekly California Eagle headlined: "Central Avenue Assumes Gigantic Proportion as Business Section for Colored Men." The community also had its share of movie houses, but the films were largely made by whites for whites; blacks, when they appeared, were mostly portrayed as menials or dimwitted comedy characters.
That would start to change the very same year, when African American actor Noble Johnson and several partners founded the Lincoln Motion Picture Company to make films about blacks, directed and acted by blacks, for blacks. Lincoln was one of many small companies throughout the country to make films with black casts in the years that followed. Tall, good-looking Noble Johnson was already a bit player in the movies. Brought up around horses in Colorado, the young man was working on a ranch in 1914 when a Philadelphia moviemaker on location needed someone to substitute for an injuired performer. Johnson did so well--in one scene driving a runaway four-horse stagecoach--that the company signed him up for further films, usually portraying Indian or Mexican characters. As the film industry moved west, he soon was in Hollywood playing minor roles for Universal Studios.
But Johnson had stronger ambitions. With a few backers, including black actor Clarence Brooks, and a white camerman named Harry Gant, Johnson started Lincoln Motion Pictures to create pioneering films in which blacks came across as real people. The company's first film was ready in 1916. A short two-reeler entitled The Realization of a Negro's Ambition, it cast Noble Johnson in the role of a Tuskegee graduate, a civil engineer, who overcomes prejudice by saving the life of a wealthy white oilman's daughter. Rewarded with a job, he strikes oil in California, then, realizing that the same oil-rich conditions exist on his father's Alabama farm, brings in a gusher there, marries his childhood sweetheart, and lives happly ever after.
Trite and simplistic by modern standards. Ambition nonetheless spoke strongly to black yearnings for acceptance and offered an new type of protagonist, a middle-class hero who believed as strongly as anybody else in the American work ethic. Produced on a shoestring budget and distributed to black theaters via friendly black newspaper editors who served as booking agents, Ambition struck a responsive chord with audiences. "Our patrons were surprised and delighted, " declared a Chicago theater owner.
TO BE CONTINUED:
From the autobiography of- RUTH BROWN - Miss Rhythm
Chapter 9 "Oh, What a Dream"
Chuck Willis and I were discussing material at Atlantic one day in the spring of '54. "When are you going to write a song for me?" I asked him, half-joking. "Are you kidding?" he replied. "Do you really want a song from me?"
"Of course I do. I've never been more serious about anything. " I was simply staggered at his modesty. "Well," he said, "I may have something that could be perfect for you. It's not finished yet, but i'll show it to you when it is.
A few weeks later he produced a set of lyrics written out on yellow legal pad paper, and proceeded to hum the tune for me. In view of what I was going through with Willis, "Oh, What a Dream" was a killer title, but I fell in love right away with the wonderful slow, bluesy mood he'd created in his combination of words and music. All we needed was for Jesse Stone to come up with an arrangement to match, and we were home free--well, almost. The record was barely on the streets when the inevitable happened. You guessed it, a Patti Page duplicate on Mercury. Patti page make Billboard's mainstream Top Forty; I settled as usual for the upper reaches of the R-and-B chart. It would be nice to report that my original had crossed over to the white chart. Instead, the reverse happened. "The Singing Rage" crossed over to the black R-and-B list! Later that same year I hit again with the topical "Mambo Baby." Mercury, not to be outdone, hit back with a Georgia Gibbs duplicate. Same result, the bulk of the sales creamed off. Never mind, the tunes kept the name of Ruth Brown hot, hot, hot in the same year that Atlantic, with its black orginals, was declared the "most-covered label" in the U.S. Personally i think "most-covered" was a misnomer; I would have termed it "most-duplicated." (to be continued
Bessie Smith 1936 by photographer Carl Van Vechten
Though a musician needs a good ear to play jazz well, it is possible to be musically illiterate and still excel in jazz. Erroll Garner was the most shining example. Erroll had such a quick ear as a child that he never bothered to learn to read. One hearing was usually enough for him to learn any piece of music. When someone mentioned his not being able to read music. Garner said, "Hell, man, nobody can hear you read."In the early days, a jazz musician who could read music was usually called "Professor." Written notes were viewed with suspicion by the unschooled and were considered to be devoid of soul. But men like Eubie Blake could read and write music very well. He said:
In those days Negro musicians weren't even supposed to read music. We had to pretend we coouldn't read; then they'd marvel at the way we could play shows, thinking we'd learned the parts by ear.
Nowadays most jazz players can read, but they still may run into situations they aren't prepared for. Saxophonist Jack Nimitz, a Stan Kenton alumnus, had no problem with reading or improvising, but when he took a job with a club date band that faked harmony to standard tunes, he had trouble. Club date fake bands play long medleys, one chorus of each song. The trumpet or the lead alto will play the melody, and the rest of the horns find harmony parts by ear.
Jack was doing all right with the harmony lines until the band began to play a tune he didn't know. He tried to catch it by ear, but in the process he played a few wrong notes. The leader shouted over the music, "if you don't know the tune, just play the melody!
Saturday Night Street Scene by artist, Archibald J. Motley Jr.
Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis took a pragmatic approach to becoming a jazz player:
I didn't buy an instrument for the sake of the music. It's different if someone says he likes music and wants to get an instrument to try to be a musician. In my case I wanted the instrument for what it represented.
By watching musicians I saw that they drank, they smoked, they got all the broads and they didn't get up early in the morning. That attracted me. My next move was to see who got the most attention, so it was between the tenor saxophonist and the drummer. The drums looked like too much work, so I said I'll get one of those tenor saxophones. That's the truth.
Nat Cole's wife Maria discussed the legend that Nat's singing career had begun when a drunk had insisted he sing "Sweet Lorraine" until he finally gave in and sang it:
The incident of the insistent barroom customer, a guy who often spent as much as "three bucks a night" in the Swanee Inn, did happen. As Nat explained it, "This particular customer kept insisting on a certain song, and I told him I didn't know that one but I would sing something different, and that was "Sweet Lorraine."
The trio was tipped fifteen cents-a nickel apiece-for that performance, and the customer requested a second tune. Again, Nat didn't know it but asked, "Is there something else you would like?"
"Yeah," the customer said, " I'd lkie my fifteen cents back."
Wynton Marsalis had a trumpet long before he developed an interest in being a trumpet player. He said:
I was about five or six, and Miles (Davis), Clark Terry, Al Hirt, and my father were all sitting around a table in Al's club in New Orleans-this was when my father was still working in Al's band. My father, just joking around because there were so many trumpet players sitting there, said,
"I better buy Wynton a Trumpet," And Al said,
"Ellis, let me give your boy one of mine." It's ironic looking back on it, because Miles said, "Don't give it to him. Trumpet's too difficult an instrument for him to learn." Ha!
Jockey Club, 1929 by artist, Archibald J. Motley Jr.
August 2, 1847 - William A. Leidesdroff launches first steamboatin San Francisco Bay.
August 5, 1936 - Track and field stars Evelyn Ashford and Edwin Moses win gold medals in the L.A. Olympic Games.
August 7, 1932 - Abebe Bikila of Ethiopiam who later wins the 1960 Olympic marathon (runningbarefoot), born.
August 8, 1865 - Matthew A. Henson, explorer and first to reach the North Pole, born in Charles City, Md.
August 10, 1880 - Clarence C. White, composer and violinist, born in Clarksville, Tn.
August 12, 1890 - Madame Lillian Evanti, opera singer who made her debut in France, born in Washington, D.C.
Happiness is the greatest paradox in Nature. It can grow in any soil, live under any conditions. It defies environment. It comes from within; it is the revelation of the depths of the inner life as light and heat proclaim the sun from which they radiate. Happiness consists not of having, but of being; not possessing, but of enjoying. It is the warm glow of a heart at peace with itself. A martyr at the stake may have happiness that a king on his throne might envy. Man is the creator of his own happiness; it is the aroma of a life lived in harmony with high ideals.
For what a man has, he may be dependent on others; what he is, rests with him alone. What he obtains in life is but acquistion; what he attains, is growth. Happiness is the soul's joy in the possession of the intangible. Absolute, perfect, continuous happiness in life, is impossible for the human. It would mean the consummation of attainments, the individual consciousness of a perfectly fufilled destiny. Happiness is paradoxic because it may coexist with trial, sorrow and poverty. It is the gladness of the heart, --rising superior to all conditions.
It is necessary to understand this: Jazz has to do with quality. For musicians the music has to be first and foremost "good" to be perceived as jazz. All other criteria play a secondary role, however important that may be.
...James "the jazzi" Harber
"This we know, all things are connected, like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected.
Teach your children that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons and daughters of the earth.
Man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web he does to himself."